- Rash is not a specific diagnosis. Instead it refers to any sort of inflammation and/or discoloration that distorts the skin’s normal appearance.
- Common rashes include eczema, poison ivy, hives, and athlete’s foot.
- Infections that cause rashes may be fungal, bacterial, parasitic, or viral.
- Over-the-counter products may be helpful treatments for many skin rashes.
- Rashes lasting more than a few days that are unexplained should be evaluated by a doctor.
What are the causes, symptoms, and signs of common noninfectious rashes?
Some common, noninfectious rashes are listed on the following pages. If you have a new rash and you have a fever or some other generalized illness associated with it, it would be best to see your doctor.
Other signs and symptoms that may be associated with rashes include the following:
- Blister formation
- Skin ulceration
Some people may experience the following related rash symptoms and signs:
- Skin discoloration
- Bumps on skin
Atopic dermatitis, often called eczema, is a common disorder of childhood that produces red itchy, weeping rashes on the inner aspects of the elbows and in back of the knees as well as the cheeks, neck, wrists, and ankles. It is commonly found in patients who also have asthma and hay fever.
Seborrheic dermatitis is the single most common rash affecting adults. It produces a red scaling often itchy eruption that characteristically affects the scalp, forehead, brows, cheeks, and external ears. In infants, it may involve and scalp (cradle cap) and diaper area.
Contact dermatitis is a rash that is brought on either by contact with a specific chemical to which the patient is uniquely allergic or with a substance that directly irritates the skin. Some chemicals are both irritants and allergens. This rash is tends to be weepy and oozy and affects the parts of the skin which have come in direct contact with the offending substance. Common examples of allergic contact dermatitis are poison ivy, poison sumac, poison oak (same chemical, different plant) and reactions to costume jewelry containing nickel.
This is a common type of irritant contact dermatitis that occurs in most infants and some adults who wear diapers when feces and urine are in contact with skin for too long.
This is a weepy, oozy dermatitis that occurs on the lower legs of individuals who have chronic swelling because of poor circulation in veins.
This bumpy scaling eruption which does not weep or ooze. Psoriasis tends to occur on the scalp, elbows, and knees. The skin condition produces silvery flakes of skin that scale and fall off.
These red itchy bumps come on in a sudden fashion and then resolve in about eight hours. They tend to recur frequently. If hives are caused by a drug, that drug should be avoided in the future.
This is a weepy, oozy dermatitis that tends to occur as coin-shaped plaques in the wintertime and is associated with very dry skin.
Certain drugs (like antibiotics) can produce a skin rash as an unwanted side effect. The common appearance is similar to rashes produced by certain common viral infections. On the other hand, drugs may produce a wide variety of other types of rashes.
Heat rash (miliaria)
This skin eruption is caused by the occlusion of sweat ducts during hot, humid weather. It can occur at any age but is most common in infants who are kept too warm. Heat rash looks like a red cluster of acne or small blisters. It is more likely to occur on the neck and upper chest, in the groin, under the breasts, and in elbow creases. Treatment involves moving the individual to a cooler environment.
What health care professionals diagnose and treat rashes?
Dermatologists, pediatricians, infectious diseases specialists, and many internists are capable of identifying most rashes.
Rashes produced by fungal infections
Fungal infections are fairly common. Yeasts are botanically related to fungi and can cause skin rashes. These tend to affect folds of skin (like the skin under the breasts or the groin). They look fiery red and have pustules (blisters) around the edges.
Rashes produced by bacterial infections
The most common bacterial infections of the skin are folliculitis and impetigo. Staph or strep germs may cause folliculitis and/or impetigo, two conditions that are much more common in children than adults. Eruptions caused by bacteria are often pustular (the bumps are topped by pus) or may be plaque-like and quite painful (such as with cellulitis).
Rashes that characteristically occur as part of certain viral infections are called exanthems. Many rashes from viruses are more often symmetrical and affect the skin surface all over the body, including roseola and measles. Sometimes certain viral rashes are localized to the cheeks, such as parvovirus infections (fifth disease). Other viral infections, including herpes or shingles, are mostly localized to one part of the body. Patients with such rashes may or may not have other symptoms like coughing, sneezing, localized burning ,or stomach upset (nausea). Viral rashes usually last a few days to two weeks and resolve on their own.
Rash due to parasites
One of the most common rashes from a parasite infection is scabies. Scabies is produced by a small mite (related to a spider). This mite is usually contracted by contact with another infected individual. The mite lives in the superficial layers of human skin. It does not produce symptoms until the host becomes allergic to it, which occurs about three weeks after the initial infection. It can resemble eczema. Bedbugs cause a series of eruptions where they pierce the skin.
What is the treatment for a rash?
Most rashes are not dangerous. Many rashes last a while and get better on their own. It is therefore not unreasonable to treat symptoms like itchy and/or dry skin for a few days to see whether the condition gets milder and goes away.
Nonprescription (over-the-counter) remedies include the following:
- Anti-itch creams containing 1% hydrocortisone cream can be effective
- Oral antihistamines like diphenhydramine and hydroxyzine can be helpful in controlling the itching.
- Moisturizing lotions
- Fungal infections are best treated with topical antifungal medications that contain clotrimazole (Lotrimin), miconazole (Micatin), or terbinafine (Lamisil).
There are many, many other types of rashes that we have not covered in this article. So, it is especially important, if you have any questions about the cause or medical treatment of a rash, to contact your doctor. This article, as the title indicates, is just an introduction to common skin rashes.